At present, the initial assessment and tests confirm some kind of disorder in the results of semen analysis in more than 50% of infertile couples. In the case of a pathological finding indicated in the semen analysis, a follow-up control test is always necessary with an interval of 2-3 weeks. In case of repeatedly confirmed pathology, the patient should be examined by an andrologist, a male infertility specialist.

Andrological assessment of the patient comprises the basic urological test, testicular ultrasound assessment, semen analysis, sample collection for hormone tests and a collection of swabs to rule out urological inflammation. Other specific tests are indicated by the andrologist on the basis of the patient’s medical history (previous genital surgery or oncological treatment) and parameters of semen analysis.

Based on the performed tests, the andrologist tries to reveal the cause of infertility. Infertility treatment then depends on the identified cause. In some cases, a lifestyle change may suffice as well as vitamin treatment and treatment of urological inflammation. At other times, conservative treatment by drugs will help, most often in the form of hormonal treatment, or it may be necessary to undergo a simple surgical procedure. Assisted reproduction is currently considered to be the most effective method in the treatment of male infertility. This is recommended by an andrologist either in severe pathology detected by semen analysis or if the couple fails to conceive even after conservative treatment. It should be noted that another, more severe disease, such as testicular cancer, may also be the actual cause of a major disorder detected by semen analysis. Therefore, a basic andrological assessment is always recommended when the semen analysis indicates some kind of disorder.

Based on the performed tests, the andrologist tries to reveal the cause of infertility. Infertility treatment then depends on the identified cause. In some cases, a lifestyle change may suffice as well as vitamin treatment and treatment of urological inflammation. At other times, conservative treatment by drugs will help, most often in the form of hormonal treatment, or it may be necessary to undergo a simple surgical procedure. Assisted reproduction is currently considered to be the most effective method in the treatment of male infertility. This is recommended by an andrologist either in severe pathology detected by semen analysis or if the couple fails to conceive even after conservative treatment. It should be noted that another, more severe disease, such as testicular cancer, may also be the actual cause of a major disorder detected by semen analysis. Therefore, a basic andrological assessment is always recommended when the semen analysis indicates some kind of disorder.

Sometimes, a lifestyle change can also help improve the parameters of semen analysis – stress relief, quitting smoking, weight adjustment, non-exposure to radiation, discontinued taking of certain medications or nutritional supplements, or appropriate sports activity. However, it is always advisable to consult any pathological results with specialists in male infertility. This may be at a clinic of reproductive medicine or directly at an andrological clinic.

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